Continuing Education Articles


NAPNAP encourages submission of original manuscripts and manuscripts on pharmacologic management of selected illnesses, specific drug use, and items of interest relative to pharmacology to be considered for continuing education articles. For more information, visit

Continuing Education Original manuscripts and manuscripts for the Pharmacology CE Department may offer continuing education credit. To be considered for continuing education, a manuscript must include the following items:

1. Demonstration of the prospective author's expertise in the subject matter through experience, education, or both.

2. Three to five objectives, using action verbs that require readers to demonstrate their understanding of the topic. For example: Explain the pathophysiology of, Recommend an appropriate approach, Discuss important considerations.

3. A researched, referenced manuscript of approximately 6000 words (including objectives, tables and post test questions/answers). The text must provide current, advanced, testable information on clinical or professional topics relevant for practicing pediatric nurses.

4. Ten multiple-choice questions with four responses each with the correct answers indicated. (See Posttest Question Construction below.)

5. A resume or curriculum vitae for each author.

Posttest Question Construction

Questions should be based on the objectives and the issues covered in the article. Ideally, the majority of questions should be designed for the reader to apply the knowledge learned from reading the article (application of material) as opposed to simple recall of information.

1. Be sure the order of questions matches the sequence information in the narrative. For example, exam question #1 should correspond to the information that appears in the narrative first.

2. Remember that test questions should measure mastery of the objectives. After you have finished writing the test, go back to the objectives and be certain that the test includes questions that relate to each objective.

3. Make all questions multiple choice or true/false with possible options labeled "a", "b", "c", "d" for multiple choice and "a" or "b" for true or false.

4. Be certain that the three incorrect options are plausible.

5. Use the same terminology in the test as in the narrative. (For example, if the narrative refers only to "hypertension," use "hypertension," not "high blood pressure," in the test.)

6. Make sure the correct option is derived directly from the narrative and clearly defensible as the best answer.

7. Avoid using words in the correct option that are also found in the stem (the first part of the question). Doing so provides "clues" to the correct answer.

8. Make sure that the options are not mutually exclusive. For example, if option "a" reads, "Slows the heart rate," and option "b" reads, "Increases the heart rate," these two options are mutually exclusive. The test taker can be reasonably certain that "c" and "d" are extraneous, and that either "a" or "b" is the correct answer.

9. Be sure that one or more of the options are not included in another option. For example, if option "a" reads, "Affects the heart rate," and option "b" reads, "Slows the heart rate," option "b" is actually included in option "a." Thus, if "b" is a correct response, "a" is also.

10. Include an answer key. The editor reserves the right to edit questions submitted for purposes of clarity and accuracy. The editors acknowledge the challenge of constructing a posttest that is accurate and clear. The Journal CE Coordinator welcomes authors to develop a posttest and is willing to work with the author to develop the posttest into the finished product.

Continuing Education (CE) Approval Procedure

1. The number of contact hours is assigned by the continuing education department of NAPNAP.

2. Two members of the CE Review Committee not associated with the Journal, who match the profile of the average Journal reader, are asked to review the article. An average of the time it takes them to read the article, find the answers in the text, think about the questions, and complete the posttest will determine the number of contact hour(s) assigned.

3. One contact hour equals 60 minutes.

4. CE Articles are approved for 1 year. At the discretion of the continuing education department, approval time may be shortened depending on the stability of the article content.

5. NAPNAP Members may complete the posttest for free at or return it to the NAPNAP National Office by mail with a check for $10. Non-members may complete the posttest for $10 at or return it to the NAPNAP National Office by mail with a check for $15. A passing grade is 70%. A signed contact hour certificate is provided to each reader that successfully completes the post test.

Earn CE Contact Hours Online


Contact Hours for JPHC CE online activities are FREE for NAPNAP Members. Effective July 2009, Non-Members will be charged a fee of $10 to receive Contact Hours for JPHC online activities through PedsCE. Payment can be made by credit card through PedsCE.

1. To take the Post Test for this article and earn contact hours, please go to PedsCE at

2. Click the name of the CE Article.

3. If you already have an account with PedsCE, log in using your username and password. If you are a NAPNAP member, log in with your member ID number and password. If you are a first-time user and NAPNAP non-member, click on “New Customer? Click Here.”

4. Once you have successfully passed the Post Test and completed the evaluation form, you will be able to print out your certificate immediately.

Below, you will find the articles listed first and the post-test listed second.