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Intimate Partner Violence and Children: Essentials for the Pediatric Nurse Practitioner

Published:January 20, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2022.12.007
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem of epidemic proportions. IPV often starts early in adolescence and continues throughout an individual’s lifespan. IPV is defined as abuse or aggression occurring in the context of a romantic relationship that is perpetrated by a current or former partner. IPV victims often experience severe psychological trauma, physical injury, and even death. The direct recipient of the violence is often not the only individual impacted. Children are often peripheral victims of IPV. It is vital that pediatric health care providers, including pediatric nurse practitioners, recognize that IPV is indeed a pediatric health care crisis requiring strategies for both identification and intervention. This continuing education article will discuss IPV and its impact on children from conception to adolescence while exploring implications for practice.

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      Posttest Questions and Answers

      • 1.
        Intimate partner violence can include which of the following?
        • a.
          Physical violence
        • b.
          Sexual violence
        • c.
          Psychological aggression
        • d.
          Stalking
        • e.
          All the above
      • 2.
        Which is the most significant risk factor for intimate partner victimization and perpetration?
        • a.
          Poverty
        • b.
          Living in a violent neighborhood
        • c.
          Childhood exposure to parental intimate partner violence
        • d.
          Mental illness
      • 3.
        All of these are true regarding the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence and child maltreatment EXCEPT:
        • a.
          26% to 73% of children experiencing child maltreatment are living in families in which intimate partner violence (IPV) is present
        • b.
          Mothers who are victims of IPV are more likely to endorse the use of harsh child discipline than mothers who are not victims of IPV
        • c.
          In about 30%–60% of homes in which IPV is present, the children are also victims of child maltreatment
        • d.
          Research evidence shows that adults raised in homes in which they were exposed to IPV as a child are less likely to have been physically or emotionally abused as a child but more likely to be the partner in a relationship who invokes IPV
      • 4.
        What is the most significant predictor of resilience among children exposed to intimate partner violence?
        • a.
          Socioeconomic status
        • b.
          Maternal physical and mental health
        • c.
          Siblings
        • d.
          High child cognitive functioning
      • 5.
        What is the greatest risk factor for intimate partner violence escalating to homicide?
        • a.
          Frequency of the violence
        • b.
          Violence involving stalking
        • c.
          Having a gun in the home
        • d.
          Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning relationship
      • 6.
        intimate partner violence can result in unintended pregnancy via which of the following?
        • a.
          Forced sexual intercourse
        • b.
          Fear of discussing contraception use with a partner
        • c.
          Partner interference with contraception use
        • d.
          All the above
      • 7.
        The following are true regarding teen dating violence EXCEPT:
        • a.
          Childhood exposure to IPV increases the risk of adolescent IPV victimization and perpetration
        • b.
          Romantic relationship problems can be a precipitating factor in adolescent suicide
        • c.
          Adolescent IPV never results in death
        • d.
          About 6.5% of all violent deaths in youth are IPV-related
      • 8.
        Adolescent primary care should include the following:
        • a.
          Discussion of healthy relationships
        • b.
          Screening for teen dating violence
        • c.
          Assessing lethality risk related to any reported violence
        • d.
          All the above
      • 9.
        The following statements are true regarding parental/caregiver screening for intimate partner violence
        • a.
          Only high-risk families should be screened
        • b.
          Face-to-face screening may be more effective than electronic screening
        • c.
          Before the screening, identify local evidence-based, accessible, affordable community resources
        • d.
          The use of an evidence-based screening tool is not necessary
      • 10.
        What is true regarding reporting of intimate partner violence to law enforcement and/or Child Protective Services?
        • a.
          All states require reporting of intimate partner violence in the presence of a child
        • b.
          State law varies regarding the reporting of intimate partner violence
        • c.
          Health care providers should consider the lethality of intimate partner violence when deciding to report
        • d.
          Children who suffer collateral physical injuries during intimate partner violence are victims of physical abuse
        • e.
          All but A
      Answers available online at ce.napnap.org.